The virions are flexuous filamentous, The virus is transmitted through aphid vectors such as Aphis goosypii, Pentolonia nigronervasa and Rhopalosiphum maidis. The snails, which live up to six years in favourable conditions, The infestation was found to be intense in areas with high population density. The affected tissues are corrugated and covered with fungus conidiophores and powdery grey conidia resembling ash on a cigar end. Field release of coccinelid predators like, Spray 0.07%. Conidia are narrow and multiseptateÂ, Perithecia are dark brown to balck, amphiceous, erumpent, ostiolate, Asci are oblong, clavate. Symptoms of damage. The rotten corm emits foul smell, The pathogen is a Gram-negative bacterium with peritrichous flagella and it is a rod shaped bacterium that lives alone or aggregates into pairs and chains, The pathogen is soil borne and enters through wounds and also through leaf sheath of suckers, The disease can be spread by infected plant debris, plant wounds and injuries. In case of severe infestation the plants may fall off on slight push by hand or wind. Acervuli  are usually rounded or sometimes elongated, erumpent. The disease is characterized by the presence of typical mosaic-like or discontinuous linear streaking in bands extending from margin to midrib. Dependent on the temperature, the babies will hatch in anything from 5 to 21 days. Destroy all the volunteer plants and that could act as a source of thrips to spread to other plantings. Faculty TNAU Download: 4 Breeding of Field & Horticultural Crops Faculty TNAU Download: 5 Comprehension & Developing Comm. These lesions are clearly seen when an infected root is split longitudinally. Good drainage and soil conditioning can control the disease to some extent. Natural enemies - Predatory ants such as the bigheaded ant (Pheidole megacephala) and Tetramorium spp  feed the eggs, grubs and pupae of weevils. The white grub and adult feeds on the living roots and later adults feeds on shrubs and the trees like neem, khejri etc. Puthunagaram, Kodumbu, Peruvembu, Mundur, Puthuppariyaram, Marutha Road, Kannadi, Koduvayur, Chittur-Thathamangalam, Mathur, Pirayiri, Vadavannur and Thenkurissi are some of the vulnerable areas in the district, Giant East African Snail has a narrow, conical shell, which is twice as long as it is wide and contains 7 to 9 whorls when fully grown. Avoid injection of Monocrotophos after flowering, Introduction braconid wasps, Lysiphlebius testaceipes as parasitoid to parasitize the aphids, Release predators such as lady bird beetles and lace wings in the field which are very active aphid feeders, Apply bio control agents like entomopathognic fungus, Beauveria bassiana in the banana fields, Newly planted banana fields are easily susceptible to infestation. It is an obligate-outcrossing hermaphrodite, which means that one externally fertilised snail can establish a population . Conidia are hyaline, aseptate, oval to elliptical or straight cylindrical, obtuse apices or flattened at base and obtuse at the apex, guttulate. Proper fertilization prevents the infection, Protective spraying when the fruit is still young with Bordeaux mixture 1%, Pre-harvest spray with Prochloroz 0.2% or Carbendazim 0.1% or Chlorothalonil 0.2% four times at fortnightly interval is highly effective, Post harvest dipping of fruits in mycostatin 440 ppm or Aureofunginsol 100 ppm or Carbendazim 400 ppm or Benomyl 1000 ppm, The distal bud should be removed when all the hands opened to prevent infection. Fore wing - Stout moth with wavy white markings on the brown. Sampling White grub or root grub is the immature stage of Scarab beetles popularly known as cock chafers, leaf chafer, chafer beetle, May beetle or June beetle. Consequent to feeding, the plants  show varying degree of yellowing, some get wilted and ultimately die. Control nematodes and other insect pests that serve as  vectors of the bacteria to invade the plant tissues. The upper portion of the peduncle is exposed to the hot sun, when the bunch emergence occurs during summer months and due to reduced functional leaves reducedÂ. Banana cultivation ranges from small backyard plantings to large plantation production. They cause rotting of the corms and act as a vector to the fungus Fusarium oxysporum. Pupation takes place in holes bored by the grubs. In the advanced stages of disease, affected plants may have a spiky appearance due to prominent upright apical leaves in contrast to the skirt of dead lower leaves. Pupal period is 5 to 7 days  Control of insect vector by spraying Phosphomidon at 1 ml per litre or Methyl Demeton at 2 ml per litre or Monocrotophos at 1ml per litre . The National Banana Extension and Development Project has produced video about tropical race 4 Panama disease (Fusarium wilt). These include TNAU probe trap, TNAU pit fall trap, two in one model trap, indicator device, Automatic insect removal bin, UV-light trap technology, Egg removal device and Stack Trap. The nose is roundly pointed, ears rather short, eyes medium size, hind feet dark on underside.  Females have four pairs of nipples. Remove the pseudostem after harvest and treat it with Carboryl (1g/lit) or Chlorpyriphos (2.5ml/lit). Newly emerged weevils are red brown, turning almost black after a few days. The young grubs after hatching in the soil headed towards the roots and start feeding on them. They are free living, they are most commonly found between leaf sheaths, in the soil at the base of the mat or associated with crop residues. For more detailed information, click the links below : Rhizome weevil: Cosmopolites sordidus Hard scale: Aspidiotus destructor Pseudostem borer: Odoiporus longicollis Fruit rust thrips: Chaetanaphothrips signipennis Banana aphid: Pentalonia nigronervosa f. typica Castor hairy caterpillar: Pericallia ricini Tingid or Lace wing bug: Stephanitis typicus They are active at night and spend the day buried underground. The nematode causes very thin lesion on the roots. Post harvest studies in banana,Mango and citrus using thiabendazole (TECTO) 50 EC: Syngenta-Private Agency: Nov 2009-2011: Rs.3.72: S.K.Manoranjitham. Adult: Adult : Small to medium sized aphids, shiny, reddish to dark brown or almost black. Banana aphid; Banana flower thrips; Banana fruit caterpillar; Banana rust thrips; Banana scab moth; Banana weevil borer; Banana-silvering thrips; Banana-spotting and fruit-spotting bugs; Cluster caterpillar; Fruit piercing moths; Queensland fruit fly; Spider mite; Two-spotted mite; Sugarcane bud moth; Diseases. Traditional pest and disease identifica - Palakkad has been identified as the most vulnerable district with the study predicting attack in 22 locations. Complete life cycle within four to six weeks, Burrowing nematode – eggs are laid in the corms and roots.2 weeks are required for the life cycle to be completed. Deep ploughing of field is a good practice. It is widely used as a fresh fruit. Submerge trimmed suckers for 20-25 minutes in hot water at 53-54°C. Banana trees (Musa spp.) Roots eventually blacken and die. The pared sets should be dipped in a Bordeaux mixture – DBCP paste (made by mixing 20 kg hydrated lime, 20 kg copper sulphate, 1288 ml 70% DBCP and 455 litres of water). Severely infected banana plants usually will not fruit, but if fruit is produced, the banana hands and fingers are likely to be distorted and twisted. Larva - Pale greenish brown with dark marking. Later on, the centre of these spots turns to light grey colour surrounded by yellow halo, The spots often coalesce to form large irregular patches of dried tissue, Rapid drying and defoliation of leaves are the characteristic feature of this disease, Normally 15-18 leaves are necessary at the time of shooting for bunch development, but due to Sigatoka leaf spot it is difficult to maintain 15 leaves, In severe cases, immature bunches fail to fill outÂ, The fingers of bunch in affected plants tend to remain undersized and angular but pulp starts ripening, This disease is caused by Mycospharella musicola fungus by the characteristics of the conidia and conidiophores, The conidiophores are bottle shaped and bear conidia. IPM for Banana. When only 1-3 plants are infected, kill and chop up the diseased plants and stew all the material in water at a temperature of at least 70 deg C for 30 minutes. The infested fruits fetch low market value in case of severe scarring of the fruit skin. Young infested suckers often wither and fail to develop. White Grub are mainly observed during rainy season in nursery. Seed treatment with Chlorpyriphos 20 EC @ 6 ml/kg seed or acephate 75SP @ 4 gm / kg seed. TNAU Agritech portal is no exception and the mistakes pointed out by this blogger was corrected in their website immediately (within 12 hours). Fact sheet on rugose spiralling whitefly, a recent invasive pest of coconut, banana and several other host plants in South India . Application of Quinalphos or Chlorpyriphos at 400 ml / gunta with irrigation water in standing banana crop. Young bunches should be opened up to the light and air and the bracts which remain attached to the bunch should be removed especially during wet weather, The plantations should have enough aeration by avoiding overcrowding of plants, Improved sanitation helps in the reduction of the disesase, By placing polythene sleeves over the stems before hands emerge, The bunches may be sprayed with Copper oxychloride 0.25 per cent solution along with a wetting agent @ 0.5 to 1.0 ml per litre of spray fluid, Spraying of the peduncle with Carbendazim at 0.1% or Dithane M-45 at 0.1% after shoot emergence. This app covers the topics of Planting materials and other topics. Field release coccinelid predators such as lacewings and ladybird beetles exert some control over rust thrips on the plant, and ants may be effective in removing some of the pupae in the soil. Later the disease spreads and affects the whole bunch. Apply Chlorpyriphos 20EC @ 400 ml / gunta with irrigation water. Finally the whole finger is affected. Control. Bio-control: Pathogenic nematode infecting white grub. MApps C-DAC Hyderabad. ... Standard Operating Procedure for Integrated Pest Management . Predatory ants such as big headed any and Tetramonrium spp. TNAU Notes pdf can be easily downloaded by clicking on the below provided links. The formic acid, with a pH of 2-3, burns the tender skins of the young fingers, leaving irregularly shaped, blackened areas on the fruits that expand as the fruits expand. Application of over 100 g or neem oil was phytotoxic (harmful to plants) and uneconomical. Further rusty growth of the fruit and yellowing of leaves. Pests and diseases that affect the banana industry are listed below. Treat the cut end of the leaf petiole with Chlorpyriphos (2.5ml/lit) + 1 ml sticking agent, After harvesting of banana bunch cut the tree at base and treat it with 100ml Carbaryl (2g/lit) or apply 10g Beauveria bassiana, Swab the cut surface of the longitudinal split traps with 20g of Beauveria bassiana fungus or Heterorhabditis indica nematode and the weevils die on their own due to infection. Fully-grown grubs are about 12 mm long. Warm and moist conditions favour the disease occurrence and the disease spread is high in old and badly maintained plantations. The disease incidence. Symptoms of damage. z o.o., a szczególnie informacje o nowych ofertach, a także zaproszenia na imprezy. Adult: 10 to 16 mm long weevils, hard-shelled, with a rather long curved snout. Disc-on-stump traps can be used for trapping weevils. Adult - Grey coloured with dark spots on the pinkish hind wings. Yellowing of leaves and rusty growth over fruit. per pit at planting. The weevils can be collected by hand and destroyed. Conidia are hyaline, oblong to cylindrical. Scales cannot fly; therefore they do not readily infest plants as do most other insects. secondary pests into primary nature, environmental contamination and residue hazards, destruction of natural enemies of insect pests, expenses on pesticides, equipment, labour etc. Externally, the first obvious signs of disease in most varieties are wilting and a light yellow colouring of the lower leaves, most prominent around the margins. Control. The Indo-Malayan region is believed to be the place of origin. The adults over-winter on citrus or non-crop native or exotic ornamentals, and start to move into lychee and longan orchards in spring when the trees flower. 1 kg neem cake, 200 gm nitrogen, 40 gm phosphorus, 200 gm potassium per plant, 4 weeding at 2 months interval up to 8 months stage, Spraying Methyl Demeton 0.03 per cent (0.3 ml/lit of water) at 3 to 4 weeks interval controls the vector and reduces the spread of the disease, Foliar spray of micronutrient (0.2% CuSo4(2ml/lit), 0.2% FeSo4(2ml/lit), 0.5% ZnSo4(5 ml/lit) and 0.1% H3Bo3(1 ml/lit of water) at 3,5 and 7th month after planting and spraying Glyphosate 2Kg per hectare to control weeds, Control of insect vector by spraying Phosphomidon at 1 ml per litre or methyl demeton at 2 ml per litre or monocrtophos at 1ml per litre.